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Bossa Nova
Bossa nova at its core is a rhythm based on the
samba. Bossa nova (which is Portuguese for "new trend") acquired a
large following, initially by young musicians and college students. Stan
Getz popularized this music, and it became an outgrowth of cool jazz.
It uses Latin Bossa Nova music mixed with jazz improvisation.
Probably the most recognized example, "The Girl from Ipanema," is
Bossa Nova (Getz plays the saxophone solo). Although the bossa
nova movement only lasted about six years (195863), it contributed a
number of songs to the standard jazz repertoire.

Jobim Trio:
Novas Bossas
Stan Getz:
Jazz Samba
Stan Getz & Gilberto Gil:

Free Jazz and Avante Garde
-- Free jazz took the concepts of
modal one step further: It based it's solos on no structure (hence, it
"freed" up the soloist to play anything). The solo became the melody
and the players played off of musical ideas from each other. This
sometimes comes off as sounding dissonant, especially when multiple
people play their own piece simultaneously. The music sometimes had
something of a frenzied edge to it. Although he mastered hard bop
and modal jazz, John Coltrane evolved into this music during the last
years of his life and became the musical figurehead who lent credibility
to it (and the music's popularity basically died with him). The
universally recognized father of this genre is Ornette Coleman (1930).
Ornette Coleman:
Shape of Things to Come
Albert Ayler:
Spiritual Unity
Sun Ra:
Heliocentric Worlds Vol. 1&2
John Coltrane:
Interstellar Space

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